There are three recent and exciting research study reports from NIMH I want to share. The first discusses the potential of modifying gene expressions to treat schizophrenia. While a major limitation of the study is that it was looking at the brains of mice, it still holds much promise for understanding the mechanisms associated with schizophrenia and developing novel treatments. The second study examined the relationship between bipolar affective disorder and influenza. Researchers have long suspected that prenatal exposure to the flu virus may be a risk factor in developing bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This current study suggests there is a fourfold increased risk. Finally, over the past several years I have been watching with interest the research on ketamine as an antidepressant agent. Research has been taking place on the use of ketamine as a rapid antidepressant. One of the challenges with ketamine is that it has many unwanted side effects and is a drug of abuse. Researchers have now developed a molecular cousin to ketamine that seems to have similar antidepressant effects without these side effects. Such a medication could revolutionize the treatment of depression like Prozac did when it first came onto the market. One of the drawbacks to current generation antidepressants is that they can takes weeks to reach full effect. Imagine the benefit of a medication that achieved the same or better results in minutes or hours? It could lead to lower rates of inpatient treatment, decrease the risk of suicide, reduce time waiting for services and service utilization. There is still a long way to go before such a medication may be available, but it gives hope to all those affected by mental illness.